SOLUTION: University of Maryland University College Stakeholders and Scope Discussion

BUSI 600 Liberty University Business Research Methods Discussion

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Group Discussion Reply Board Forums Instructions The primary goal is to extensively discuss the posts provided below by offering comments, critiques, and suggestions for improvement in order to create a better final response You must reply to at least 2 of your group members’ threads (see below) and address at least 1 strength and 1 weakness per reply (weakness cannot be about the biblical integration). Each reply must be 500–600 words, reference at least 2 peer-reviewed sources, and include 2 biblical integrations. Use proper grammar and current 7th Edition APA formatting. (see documents attached for 7th Edition APA format and proper citation format) Submit replies as 2 separate Microsoft Word documents. Group Discussion Board Forum Part I & II Grading Rubric 50 points Part II – Two Individual Replies (late posts not accepted) 9 points Author responded to at least 2 peers by posted deadlines. Insightful throughout. Completely developed all relevant information. Critical issues and key areas that supported each question were clearly identified, analyzed, and supported. Offer at least 1 strength and 1 weakness for each reply. Part II – Direct Application of Scholarly Research & Integration of Biblical Principles 9 points Author accurately applied 2 or more scholarly (peer reviewed) sources to each question. Author accurately applied at least 2 scriptural/Biblical principles in each question response. Structure – 30% Advanced Part II – Mechanics, APA Style & Word Count 7 points Correct spelling and grammar are used throughout the essay. There are 0–1 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content. There are 0–1 minor errors in 7th edition APA format in the required items: citations and references. The word count of 500–600 words is met for each question. Discussion #1 Question 13.5: You study the attrition of entering college freshmen (those students who enter college as freshmen but don’t stay to graduate). You find the following relationships among attrition, aid, and distance of home from college. A. What graphical displays would you choose to understand the data? When it comes to displaying data that has been collect the right graphic can make all the difference for the person that is interpretating the information. Visual processing takes place in two stages and a person’s sensory input as well as cognitive knowledge plays a factor in how data is understood. The first stage of visual processing is automatic and driven by sensory features such as color, size, and form. While the second stage is focused on the person knowledge of the subject that is acquired over time and through life experiences (Jarvenpaa, 1990). Visual stimulation is very critical to the realization that something is real. Take for example, the disciple Thomas in the Gospel of John. He doubted that Jesus rose from the dead until he saw for his own eyes and felt for himself the holes in Jesus’s hands and side (English Standard Version, 2016). In the cases of data, it is hard to have faith that data is real so we must be able to see with our own eyes and hear from a credible source that such is true. For the data in this study I would personally choose a simple bar graph to display the information to the user. I would create three different bar graphs to show the difference in each. They would like this below. The data that is displayed would activate the first stage of visual processing since the data is color coded in very basic colors to ensure that people with color vision problems would be able to tell the differences between the two. Also, the shapes of the data is clearly showing a difference to allow for quick interpretation of the data that is being presented. The second stage of visual processing would assume the person would have adequate knowledge of the college process and know what “Aid” is in regards to college and the differences in distances to a college. The distances of far and near would have to be assumed as there is no specific mileage that is presented in the question so the knowledge and past experiences of places far away and places near would be created by the user. B. What is your interpretation? Looking at the data and comparing it to one another I find that there is very little correlation with students that receive aid and stay or drop out as freshman. It was curious to see that more people stayed in college who did not receive aid than people who did receive aid but it was at a small percentage that I would not find it significant. Researchers have found that the type of “aid” and where the aid derived from has a large indicator on whether a student stays or drops out. For example, a student whose aid is tied to academic reasons has more reason to earn high marks and stay committed than another student who is receiving aid due to physical attributes (Chen & Desjardins, 2008). The two charts that are worth discussing though was the students that were far and near the college. The data represents a strong relationship between students who live near the college have a higher chance of staying in school than students who are from farther away. This could be from several different reasons such as family/life stressors, dealing with making of new friends, lack of social network, and overall traveling back and forth from school limits study time. Ecclesiastes 4:9-10 explains it best, “Two are better than one, because they have a good reward for their toil. For if they fall, one will lift up his fellow. But woe to him who is alone when he falls and has not another to lift him up!” (English Standard Version, 2016). People who are far from college may not have help like the people who live near so when they fall down they might not have help to get back up and drop out of college to return home where there is help. References Chen, R., & DesJardins, S. L. (2008). Exploring the effects of financial aid on the gap in student dropout risks by income level. Research in Higher Education, 49(1), 1-18. doi:10.1007/s11162-007-9060-9 Jarvenpaa, S. (1990). Graphic displays in decision making – the visual salience effect. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making., 3(4), 247–262. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdm.3960030403 English Standard Version. (2016). Bible Gateway https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Ecclesiastes+4%3A9-12&version=ESV English Standard Version. (2016). Bible Gateway https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=John%2020:24-29&version=ESV Discussion #2 Question 14.7 : You conduct a survey of a sample of 25 members of this year’s graduating business students and find that the average GPA is 3.2. The standard deviation of the sample is 0.4. Over the last 10 years, the average GPA has been 3.0. Is the GPA of this year’s students significantly different from the long-run average? At what alpha level would it be significant? The sources that generate a hypothesis are comparable to those that give rise to the problem itself; Actually, problem and hypothesis are two perspectives of the same picture. According to the scientific method, hypotheses can be derived from inductive or deductive logical reasoning. The inductive reasoning method starts by observing a specific problem and can lead to a hypothesis’s formulation. The problem must be correctly identified and specified, since, if there is only an intuition of it, it will be necessary to go deeper into its definition. The problem does not anticipate anything about its solution. If it did, it would cease to be a problem, and it is up to the hypothesis to propose preselected solutions. As Dantlgraber (2019) explains, “Inductive reasoning, which we measure with our tasks, mostly describes the ability to recognize connections and to derive and apply superordinate rules” (p. 4) Null hypothesis The deductive method is born from theory or a conceptual or theoretical framework. It leads to a series of statements or hypotheses that, converted into a working instrument, analyze the theory. Suppose the hypothesis derived from a theory is not confirmed. In that case, the validity of the theory itself may be questioned, but the limitations or even the study design’s validity will also have to be considered. Deductive reasoning is a true argument by definition that includes philosophical logic and mathematics. (Ormerod, 2010) However, to verify or contrast a hypothesis, the corresponding statistical significance tests must be applied, and these require a formulation known as the null hypothesis (H0). The null hypothesis (H0) is used for testing. It is a statement that no difference exists between the sample parameter and the sample statistic. (Schindler, 2019, p. 361). Researchers use the T-test to determine if there was a change in the population. The GPA difference between the class and the average GPA for the past ten years is 0.2, makes the use of the null hypothesis appropriate because not enough data and a number of years of GPA difference to make a difference. Then Null hypothesis H0: µ = 3.0 Alternative hypothesis The alternative hypothesis is the alternative assumption to the null hypothesis formulated in an experiment or investigation. This hypothesis is the result of specific research conducted on a population or sample. The alternative hypothesis represents the conclusion that the researchers want to demonstrate or affirm after their study. This hypothesis is expressed with the expression “H1” and will generally represent the null hypothesis’s opposite. Thus, Alternative hypothesis H1: µ ≠ 3.0 Breakdown Null hypothesis H0: µ=3.0 Alternative hypothesis H1: µ≠3.0 m=3.2 standard deviation s=0.4 size n=25 T-test: T=m−μ/ s/√n T=(x-3.0)/s/(Square root(n)) = (3.2-3.0)/0.4/(square root (25)) =0.2/(0.4/5)=2.5 The degree of freedom df=n−1 (df) = 25 – 1 = 24. p-value = P(T>2.5) =0.0197 Use significance level alpha equals 0.02, then since p-value=0.0197<alpha=0.02 So, if we use significance level alpha = 0.02, then since p-value=0.0197<alpha=0.02, we should reject Null hypothesis H0. Therefore, at the 0.02 significance level, we conclude that this year’s students’ GPA is significantly different from the long-term average. The Search for the truth The truth. It was under the exclusive domain of philosophers and theologians for a long time, but then the Age of Enlightenment arrived, and science and rationalism intervened. Through observation and experimentation, we arrive at the conclusions of this or that, true or false. Deuteronomy 17:4 said, “And it be told thee, and thou hast heard of it, and enquired diligently, and, behold, it be true, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought in Israel.” (King James Bible, 1769/2017) However, is the truth merely a matter of true or false, black or white, this or that? Keep in mind what the bible tells us in John 8:32 “And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.” (King James Bible, 1769/2017) References Dantlgraber, M., Kuhlmann, T., & Reips, U. (2019). Conceptual fluency in inductive reasoning. PloS One, 14(11), e0225050. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1371/journal.pone.0225050 King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org (Original work published 1769) Ormerod, R. J. (2010). Rational inference: Deductive, inductive and probabilistic thinking. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 61(8), 1207-1223. http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/40802205 Schindler, P. S. (2019). Business research methods (13th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

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