SOLUTION: Relationship Between Upper Management and Its Employees Paper

Leadership Challenge: Application of Theory to Leadership Practice
600 Week 5 Assignment and Rubric
Length:
Due:
Value:
Post:
Paper: 6 – 8 double-spaced pages ​(excluding title and references pages)
Week 5 by Sunday Midnight
230 Points for 23% of the grade
Week 5 Assignments
Classical and contemporary leadership theories offer leaders a “toolbox” of approaches and solutions that
can enhance their leadership effectiveness in addressing organizational issues. In this assignment, you
will analyze the value of different leadership approaches in resolving a real-world issue. In essence, your
leadership challenge is a case study in which you will assess the effectiveness and impact of applying
three different leadership theories or models.
Leadership Challenge Paper Guidelines
Prepare and submit 6 – 8 page paper that briefly describes the situation, defines and applies three
leadership theories to the situation, and reflects on insights gained. A well-constructed paper will
reference 4 or more scholarly sources including 3 journal articles such as those assigned and retrieved
from Brandman’s virtual library, and adhere to APA standards.
Situation Description
In no more than one page, describe the leadership challenge which may be an organizational problem, a
new initiative, and/or opportunity. In the description, position yourself as the leader, and identify areas of
concern, key players (names optional), and your goal(s) in addressing the challenge. The leadership
challenge described should be consistent with the one approved by the instructor in week 2, and used in
the discussion board in weeks 2 – 4.
Leadership Theories and Models
Select three (3) of the following classic leadership​ ​theories or models: Leadership Grid, Situational
Leadership, Path-Goal, and/or Leader-Member Exchange that are most relevant to your leadership
challenge. Define and describe the components of the selected theories using four (4) or more scholarly
sources including three (3) journal articles.
Application​ ​of Theories and Models
Analyze your leadership challenge through the lens of each selected leadership theory providing explicit
and direct links to the components of the theory or model as they relate to the situation. Based on your
analysis, draw valid conclusions on the impact and value of each theory in addressing your challenge.
Reflective Analysis
In 2 – 3 pages, reflect on your effectiveness as the leader in this challenge, discussing three (3) specific
insights you learned about leadership from this assignment, and identifying one specific action you will
take to enhance your leadership practice. In your reflection, describe what surprised you, the
effectiveness of the classic leadership theories in addressing your challenge, and how your thinking
and/or behavior changed.
Evaluation Criteria: Grading Rubric
Criteria
Situation
Description
Exemplary
Proficient
Developing
Emerging
20 – 19
Clearly and concisely
describes the
leadership challenge.
18 – 17
Clearly describes the
leadership challenge.
Positions self as
16 – 15
Description of the
leadership challenge is
incomplete and/or
14 – 0
Limited if any
description of the
leadership challenge.
Major Theories
● Leadership
Grid
● Situational
Leadership
● Path-Goal
● LMX
Theory
Application
Positions self as
leader. Identifies key
items of concern and
key players. Does not
exceed 1 page
55 – 50
In-depth and accurate
discussion of 3 major
theories utilizing
terminology associated
with theories. Fully
describes major
components of the
theories; references
scholarly sources by
the author(s) or
originators of 3
theories
55 – 50
Fully applies 3 theories
to leadership
challenge. Provides
explicit and direct links
to all of the
components of the
theory as they relate to
the situation. Draws
valid conclusions of
the impact of each
theory on the situation.
leader. Identifies most
key items of concern
and key players. May
slightly exceed 1 page
49 – 44
Accurately discusses
3 major theories but
may not consistently
use terminology
associated with one
theory. Describes
most components of
each theory;
references scholarly
sources by the
author(s) or originators
of 2 theories
49 – 44
Applies 3 theories to
leadership challenge
but may not
consistently provide
explicit links to the
components of the
theory as related to
the situation.
Draws fairly valid
conclusions of the
impact of each theory
on the situation.
44– 39
Discusses leadership
effectiveness
describing 2 – 3
insights into
leadership gained and
1 fairly specific action.
Considers surprises,
value of classic
theories, and how
thinking and/or
behavior changed.
confusing. Positions
self as leader but may
not identify key
concerns and/or key
players.
43 – 38
Describes 2 – 3 major
theories but may not
use terminology
associated with 1 – 2
theories. Describes
some components of
the theories.
Acknowledges the
author(s) of theories but
relies heavily on
secondary sources
such as Northouse
43 – 38
Partially applies
theories to leadership
challenge but may not
provide links to the
components of the
theory as related to the
situation.
May not fully analyze
the impact of each
theory on the situation
May not position self
as leader, identify
key concerns and/or
key players.
38 – 33
Somewhat discusses
leadership effectiveness
describing 1 – 2 general
insights into leadership
gained and 1 general
action. May include
surprises, value of
classic theories, and/or
how thinking and/or
behavior changed.
32 – 0
Limited if any
reflection on
leadership
effectiveness,
surprises, value of
theories or changes
in thinking or
behavior; may
Identify but not
discuss 0 – 2
insights and/or
action.
14 – 0
Cites 0 – 2 scholarly
sources. Limited
adherence to APA
standards in the
paper and Reference
page; work of others
may be cited but with
multiple (11+) errors.
Sources listed in
References and
citations do not
match
Reflective
Analysis
50 – 45
Assesses leadership
effectiveness clearly
describing 3 or more
specific insights into
leadership gained and
1 specific action.
Discusses surprises,
effectiveness of classic
theories, and how
thinking and/or
behavior changed.
APA and
Sources
20 – 19
Cites 4 or more
scholarly sources
including 3 journal
articles. Accurately
uses headers and
adhere to APA
standards; reference
page and citations are
correct. All sources
listed in References
are cited in paper
18 -17
Cites 3 scholarly
sources including 2
journal articles. .
Uses headers and
adheres to APA
standards; reference
page and citations are
correct with minor
(1-3) errors. All
sources listed in
References are cited
in paper
16 – 15
Cites 2 – 3 scholarly
sources including 1
journal article. May use
headers and somewhat
adheres to APA
standards; the work of
others is cited but with
numerous (4 – 10)
errors. Sources listed in
References and
citations may not match
Writing
Mechanics
30 – 27
The paper is logical
and well-written;
26 – 23
The paper is logical
and well-written but
22 – 19
The paper is somewhat
logical and well-written
37 – 0
Describes in general
terms 0 – 2 major
theories but does not
use terminology
associated with the
theories. May rely
solely on secondary
sources such as
Northouse; may not
acknowledge
author(s) of theories.
37 – 0
Limited if any
application of the
theories to the
leadership challenge.
Does not link the
components of the
theory as related to
the situation. Limited
if any analysis of the
impact of theory on
the situation.
18 – 0
The paper lacks
clarity and may be
spelling, grammar and
punctuation are
accurate. Paper is the
required length of 6 – 8
pages of content, and
includes correctly
prepared title page.
with minor (1 – 3)
errors in spelling,
grammar and/or
punctuation. The
content may be 5%
too long or short;
includes a correctly
prepared title page.
but with several (4 – 10)
errors in spelling,
grammar and/or
punctuation. The
content may be 10%
too long or short, and
may not include a
correctly prepared title
page
confusing with
numerous (11+)
errors in spelling,
grammar and/or
punctuation. The
content may be 15%
too long or short, and
may not include a
title page
Chapter 8: Transformational Leadership
Overview
 Transformational Leadership (TL) Perspective
 A Model of Transformational Leadership
 Transformational Leadership Factors
 Full Range of Leadership Model
 The Additive Effects of TL
 Other Transformational Leadership Perspectives
 How Does the Transformational Approach Work?
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Transformational Leadership
Description
 Process – TL is a process that changes and transforms
individuals
 Influence – TL involves an exceptional form of influence
that moves followers to accomplish more than what is
usually expected
 Core elements – TL is concerned with emotions, values,
ethics, standards, and long-term goals
 Encompassing approach – TL describes a wide range
of leadership influence where followers and leaders are
bound together in the transformation process
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Types of Leadership Defined (Burns, 1978)
TRANSACTIONAL
Focuses on the
exchanges
that occur
between leaders
and their followers
PSEUDOTRANSFORMATIONAL
TRANSFORMATIONAL
Process of
engaging with others
to create a connection that
increases
motivation and morality in
both the leader and the
follower
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Focuses on the
leader’s
own interests
rather than the
interests of his or
her followers
Types of Leadership Defined
(Burns, 1978)
– No new taxes = votes.
– Turn in assignments = grade.
– Surpass goals = promotion.
The exchange dimension is so
common that you can observe
it at all walks of life.
Focuses on the
exchanges
that occur
between leaders
and their followers
TRANSACTIONAL
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Types of Leadership Defined
(Burns, 1978)
Leaders who are
 transforming but in a
negative way
 self-consumed,
exploitive; poweroriented, with
warped moral values
includes leaders like
 Adolph Hitler
 Saddam Hussein
Focuses on the
leader’s
own interests
rather than the
interests of his or
her followers
PSEUDOTRANSFORMATIONAL
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Pseudotransformational (Christie, Barling,
& Turner, 2011)
 Four experimental studies => model of
pseudotransformational leadership
1) Self-serving
2) Unwilling to encourage independent thought in
followers
3) Exhibits little general caring for others
4) Uses inspiration and appeal to manipulate followers
for his or her own ends
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Types of Leadership Defined Burns (1978)
❖Leader is attentive to the needs and motives of followers
and tries to help followers reach their fullest potential.
• Mohandas Gandhi raised
the hopes and demands of
millions of his people and in
the process was changed
himself
• Ryan White raised people’s
awareness about AIDS
Process of
engaging with others
to create a connection
that increases
motivation
and morality in both the
leader and the follower
TRANSFORMATIONAL
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Transformational Leadership & Charisma
Definition
 Charisma – A special personality characteristic that gives
a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is
reserved for a few, is of divine origin, and results in the
person being treated as a leader (Weber, 1947)
 Charismatic Leadership Theory (House, 1976)
 Charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific
charismatic effects on their followers
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Theory of Charismatic Leadership
(House, 1976)
Theory of Charismatic Leadership
(Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993)
Later Studies
 Charismatic Leadership –
 Transforms follower’s self-concepts; tries to link identity
of followers to collective identity of the organization
• Forge this link by emphasizing intrinsic rewards &
de-emphasizing extrinsic rewards
• Throughout process, leaders


Express high expectations for followers
help followers gain sense of self-confidence and selfefficacy
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Model of Transformational Leadership
(Bass, 1985)
 Expanded and refined version of work done by Burns and
House. It included
• More attention to followers’ rather than leader’s needs
• Suggested TL could apply to outcomes that were not positive
• Described transactional and transformational leadership as a
continuum
 Extended House’s work by
• Giving more attention to emotional elements & origins of charisma
• Suggested charisma is a necessary but not sufficient condition for
TL
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
TL motivates followers beyond the expected by
▪ raising consciousness about the value and importance of specific and
idealized goals
▪ transcending self-interest for the good of the team or organization
▪ addressing higher-level needs
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Transformational Leadership Factors
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Full Range of
Leadership Model
Transformational Leadership Factors:
The 4 Is
 Idealized Influence
 Acting as strong role models
 High standards of moral and ethical conduct
 Making others want to follow the leader’s vision
 Inspirational Motivation
 Communicating high expectations
 Inspiring followers to commitment and engagement in shared
vision
 Using symbols & emotional appeals to focus group
members to achieve more than self-interest
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Transformational Leadership Factors:
The 4 Is
 Intellectual Stimulation
 Stimulating followers to be creative and innovative
 Challenging their own beliefs and valuing those of leader and
organization
 Supporting followers to
 Try new approaches
 Develop innovative ways of dealing with organization issues
 Individualized Consideration




Listening carefully to the needs of followers
Acting as coaches to assist followers in becoming fully actualized
Helping followers grow through personal challenges
Ex. Showing optimism helps employees become more engaged in their
work (Tims et al., 2011)
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Transactional Leadership Factors
Contingent Reward
The exchange process between leaders and followers in which
effort by followers is exchanged for specified rewards
Management-by-Exception
Leadership that involves corrective criticism, negative feedback, and
negative reinforcement
 Two forms
• Active – Watches follower closely to identify
mistakes/rule violations
• Passive – Intervenes only after standards have not been met or
problems have arisen
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Nonleadership Factor
Laissez-Faire
The Absence of Leadership
A hands-off, let-things-ride approach
 Refers to a leader who
 abdicates responsibility
 delays decisions
 gives no feedback, and
 makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Bennis & Nanus (1985)
Four Leader Strategies in Transforming
Organizations
 Clear vision of organization’s future state
 TL’s social architect of organization
 Create trust by making their position known
and standing by it
 Creatively deploy themselves through positive
self-regard
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Kouzes & Pozner (1987, 2002)
Model consists of five fundamental practices

Model the Way

Inspire a Shared Vision

Challenge the Process

Enable Others to Act

Encourage the Heart
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
How Does the Transformational
Leadership Approach Work?
 Focus of Transformational Leadership
 Strengths
 Criticisms
 Application
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Transformational Leadership
Overall Scope
 Describes how leaders can
initiate, develop, and carry
out significant changes in
organizations
Focus of Transformational
Leaders
 TLs empower and nurture




followers
TLs stimulate change by
becoming strong role models for
followers
TLs commonly create a vision
TLs require leaders to become
social architects
TLs build trust & foster
collaboration
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Strengths
 Broadly researched. TL has been widely researched, including a large





body of qualitative research centering on prominent leaders and CEOs
in major firms.
Intuitive appeal. People are attracted to TL because it makes sense to
them.
Process focused. TL treats leadership as a process occurring between
followers and leaders.
Expansive leadership view. TL provides a broader view of leadership
that augments other leadership models.
Emphasizes followers. TL emphasizes followers’ needs, values, and
morals.
Effectiveness. Evidence supports that TL is an effective form of
leadership.
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Criticisms
 Lacks conceptual clarity
 Dimensions are not clearly delimited
 Parameters of TL overlap with similar conceptualizations of leadership
 Measurement questioned
 Validity of MLQ not fully established
 Some transformational factors are not unique solely to the transformational
model
 TL treats leadership more as a personality trait or predisposition than a




behavior that can be taught
No causal link shown between transformational leaders and changes
in followers or organizations
TL is elitist and antidemocratic
Suffers from heroic leadership bias
Has the potential to be abused
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Application
 Provides a general way of thinking about leadership that





stresses ideals, inspiration, innovations, and individual
concerns
Can be taught to individuals at all levels of the organization
Able to positively impact a firm’s performance
May be used as a tool in recruitment, selection, promotion,
and training development
Can be used to improve team development, decisionmaking groups, quality initiatives, and reorganizations
The MLQ and Sosik and Jung (2010) guide help leaders to
target areas of leadership improvement
Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

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