SOLUTION: SDSU Student Experience During the Course Essay

CHAPTER 8
Survey research
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Topics to Cover
• Survey Research in the Social Sciences
• Questionnaire Development and Assessment
• Writing Survey Questions
• Organization of the Questionnaire
• Survey Designs
• Ethical Issues in Survey Research
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Survey Research
• Involves the collection of information from a sample of individuals
through their responses to questions
• Attractive Features:
– Versatility
• Can be used to enhance understanding of almost any social
issue
– Efficiency
• Data can be collected from many people at relatively low cost
and relatively quickly
– Generalizability
• Can be used to develop a representative picture of the
attitudes and characteristics of a large population
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
The Omnibus Survey
• Covers a range of topics of interest to different social scientists
• Has multiple sponsors or is designed to generate data useful to a
broader segment of the social science community
• May use a split-ballot design
– Survey has different versions in which unique questions or different
versions of questions are administered to randomly selected
subsets
– Allows for:
• The inclusion of more questions without increasing the cost
• Comparisons of different versions of questions
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Basic Terms in Survey Research
• Questionnaire
– Survey instrument containing the questions for a self-administered
survey
• Interview schedule
– Survey instrument containing the questions asked by the
interviewer in an in-person or phone survey
• Respondent
– Person who answers questions on a survey
• Response Rate
– Percentage of persons surveyed who complete survey
– Item response rate is the percentage of items that are completed
on a survey
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Questionnaire Development and
Assessment
• Maintain focus
– A clear conception of the research problem and the
population to be sampled is required
– Irrelevant questions should be excluded
• Build on existing instruments
– Use already designed survey questions to measure key
concepts in present study
• Consider translation of surveys to other languages
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Writing Survey Questions
● Two categories:
o Open-ended questions do not have explicit answer
responses
➢Interpretive questions help explain answers from other
questions
➢Provide a wealth of information, but takes time to organize and
summarize and can overwhelm respondents
o Closed-ended questions have explicit answer responses
➢Inclusion of answer responses reduces ambiguity, but can also
obscure what people really think
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Writing Survey Questions
• Construct clear and meaningful questions to maximize
measurement validity
• Avoid confusing phrasing and vagueness
– Use good grammar and clear language
– Include a reference period (i.e., a time period around
which a question is being asked)
• Avoid negatives and double-negatives to avoid
misinterpretation
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Writing Survey Questions
• Avoid double-barreled questions (i.e., when a question
is really asking two questions)
• Avoid making either agreement or disagreement
disagreeable
– Reduce the likelihood of agreement bias by
presenting both sides of attitude scales in the
question
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Additional Guidelines for
Fixed-Response Questions
• Response choices should be mutually exclusive
– Response choices do not overlap
• Response categories should be exhaustive
– Every case can be classified into one of the response
choices
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Additional Guidelines for
Fixed-Response Questions
• Use Likert-type response categories
– Survey responses in which respondents indicate the extent to
which they agree or disagree with statements
• Minimize fence-sitting and floating
– Fence-sitters see themselves as neutral in their attitudes
toward an issue
– Floaters choose a substantive answer even when they know
little about an issue
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Additional Guidelines for
Fixed-Response Questions
• Utilize filter questions
– Filter question
• Question asked to establish whether concept is applicable
– Skip pattern
• Questions skipped by respondents to whom they are not
applicable
– Contingent question
• Question or set of questions answered only by
respondents to whom they are applicable
• Clearly label questions to be skipped so that respondents can
easily follow the questionnaire
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Combining Questions in Indexes
• An index or scale is when several questions are used to
measure one concept
• Reliability measures are special statistics that help determine
whether responses are consistent
• Single questions are prone to idiosyncratic variation
– Occurs when individuals’ responses vary because of their
reactions to particular words or ideas in the question
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Combining Questions in Indexes
• Four cautions:
– The presupposition that each component question is
indeed measuring the same concept may be mistaken
– Combining responses to specific questions can obscure
important differences in meaning among the questions
– The questions in an index may cluster together in
subsets
– Sometimes particular questions are weighted more
than others in the calculation of the index
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Demographic Questions
• Almost all surveys include a section on demographic
information (e.g., sex, age, race or ethnicity, income, and
religion)
• Demographics can be important independent variables
• Exclude demographic questions unnecessary for research
● Depending upon the research questions, demographic
questions are placed at the beginning or end of the survey
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Pretest the Survey
• Obtain feedback on survey by asking others to review it
– Consider focus groups, which are guided discussions
among potential respondents
• Administer the survey to a small sample
• Review responses to each question
• Listen to audio recordings and/or read comments by
respondents and interviewers
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Pretest the Survey
• Discuss the survey’s content with knowledgeable
parties
• Conduct cognitive interviews
– Researchers ask test questions, then probe with
follow-up questions to learn how questions were
interpreted and the meanings of answers
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Organization of the Questionnaire
• Survey should have a descriptive title that indicates the overall
topic
• Major topic divisions should be organized in separate sections
– Each section should be introduced with a brief statement
• Instructions should be used liberally to minimize respondent
confusion and/or to clarify why some information is included
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Organization of the Questionnaire
• Questionnaire should look attractive, be easy
to complete, and have substantial open space
• Response choices should be designated by
numbers
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Organization of the Questionnaire
• Context effects
– When one or more questions influence how
subsequent questions are interpreted
– Difficult to cure this problem
– Split-ballot technique may help identify the
problem when the question order is reversed
on a subset of the questionnaires
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Cover Letter
• The letter sent with a mailed survey which explains its purpose
and encourages participation
• Must have the following characteristics:
– Credible
• Establish that the research is conducted by credible,
unbiased authority
– Personalized
• Include a personalized salutation, refer to the respondent
in the second person, and close with the researcher’s
signature
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Cover Letter
• Must have the following characteristics:
– Interesting
• Include a statement making the survey appealing to
complete
– Responsible
• Reassure the respondents that information will be treated
confidentially
• Include contact information the respondents can use if
they have questions or would like a summary of the final
report
• State that participation is voluntary
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Survey Designs
• Five basic survey designs:
– Mailed survey
– Group-administered survey
– Phone survey
– In-person survey
– Electronic survey
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Survey Designs
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Mailed, Self-Administered Surveys

Mailing a questionnaire to respondents, who then administer the surveys
themselves

Maximize the response rate by:
– Making the questionnaire attractive
– Making questions clear and understandable
– Minimizing open-ended questions
– Offering a small incentive
– Including a stamped, self-addressed envelope
– Using follow-up mailings of surveys
● Minimum acceptable response rate generally considered to be around
70%
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Group-Administered Surveys
• Completed by individual respondents assembled in a
group
• Response rates are usually high
• Two issues:
– Most populations cannot be sampled in a group setting
– Respondents may feel coerced and as a result will be
less likely to answer questions honestly
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Phone Survey
• Interviewers question respondents over the
phone and record answers
• The recommended length of time for phone
interviews is between 30-45 minutes
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Phone Survey
• Two concerns:
– Reaching sampling units
• Random digit dialing makes it easier to draw a random sample
– Maximizing response rates
• Multiple callbacks may be necessary
• Interviewer must be able to verbally convey information
• Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) can standardize
procedures
• Growth of telemarketing means individuals are more
accustomed to “just say no” to calls from unknown individuals
or to use their answering machines to screen out unwanted calls
• Younger individuals with cell phones are much harder to contact
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
In-Person Interview
• Face-to-face interaction between interviewer and respondent
– Allow longer and more complex interview schedules
• Balancing rapport and control
– Computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) and Computerassisted self-interviewing (CAPI) can increase control during interview
• Maximizing response
– Contact rates tend to be lower in cities and single-person households
– Refusal rates vary based on education and income
– Unusual strains and disillusionment can undermine rates
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Electronic Survey
• Survey is sent and administered by computer, either email or on
the Web
• Issue:
– Not possible to obtain a true representative sample of the
U.S. population
• Households without Internet tend to be older, poorer, and
less educated than do those that are connected (File
2013b; Pew Research Center 2013)
– Much lower rates of survey completion (Tourangeau et al.
2012 )
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Mixed-Mode Surveys
• The combination of different survey designs
• Allow strength of one design to compensate for
weakness of another
– Modes selected depend upon population
being surveyed
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Mixed-Mode Surveys
• Unimode design reduces the possibility that
respondents will give different answers to
different questions because of the mode
– Using the same question structures,
response choices, skip instructions across
modes, and a small number of response
choices for each question
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Comparison of Survey Designs
• Researchers assess the advantages and
disadvantages of each type of survey in terms
of:
– Representativeness of the sample
– Questionnaire construction and question design
– Distortion of answers
– Administrative goals
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Ethical Issues in Survey Research
• Protection of respondents
– Disclose any harmful effects of participation
• Confidentiality
– If survey measures attitudes or behaviors that are
socially stigmatized, the respondents’ rights need to
be protected
• Only include questions that are important to
research
• Limit access to information
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Ethical Issues in Survey Research
• Anonymity
– Only if no identifying information about
respondents is obtained is true anonymity
provided
• Makes follow-up attempts impossible
– Allow anonymous responses to a subset of
questions
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.
Discussion
• Imagine that we wanted to study a broad topic such as juvenile
delinquency. Argue for different scenarios where it might be
best to use each of the 5 survey designs discussed in the
chapter: Mailed survey, Group-administered survey, Phone
survey, In-person survey, and Electronic survey.
• Given the advantages and disadvantages of each of the five
survey designs, what would you argue is the survey design that
can receive the most valid responses?
Bachman 6e © 2017 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Haven’t Found The Relevant Content? Hire a Subject Expert to Help You With
SOLUTION: SDSU Student Experience During the Course Essay
Post Your Own Question And Get A Custom Answer
Hire Writer
Written Assignments
Get 20% Discount on This Paper
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Choose Us?

Quality Papers

We value our clients. For this reason, we ensure that each paper is written carefully as per the instructions provided by the client. Our editing team also checks all the papers to ensure that they have been completed as per the expectations.

Professional Academic Writers

Over the years, our Written Assignments has managed to secure the most qualified, reliable and experienced team of writers. The company has also ensured continued training and development of the team members to ensure that it keeps up with the rising Academic Trends.

Affordable Prices

Our prices are fairly priced in such a way that ensures affordability. Additionally, you can get a free price quotation by clicking on the "Place Order" button.

On-Time delivery

We pay strict attention to deadlines. For this reason, we ensure that all papers are submitted earlier, even before the deadline indicated by the customer. For this reason, the client can go through the work and review everything.

100% Originality

At Written Assignments, all papers are plagiarism-free as they are written from scratch. We have taken strict measures to ensure that there is no similarity on all papers and that citations are included as per the standards set.

Customer Support 24/7

Our support team is readily available to provide any guidance/help on our platform at any time of the day/night. Feel free to contact us via the Chat window or support email: support@writtenassignments.com.

Try it now!

Order Now to Get 20% Discount

We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:
$0.00

How our best essay writing service works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

Written Assignments has stood as the world’s leading custom essay writing paper services provider. Once you enter all the details in the order form under the place order button, the rest is up to us.

Essays

Cheapest Essay Writing Service

At Written Assignments, we prioritize all aspects that bring about a good grade such as impeccable grammar, proper structure, zero plagiarism and conformance to guidelines. Our experienced team of writers will help you completed your essays and other assignments.

Admissions

Admission and Business Papers

Be assured that you’ll get accepted to the Master’s level program at any university once you enter all the details in the order form. We won’t leave you here; we will also help you secure a good position in your aspired workplace by creating an outstanding resume or portfolio once you place an order.

Editing

Editing and Proofreading

Our skilled editing and writing team will help you restructure your paper, paraphrase, correct grammar and replace plagiarized sections on your paper just on time. The service is geared toward eliminating any mistakes and rather enhancing better quality.

Coursework

Technical papers

We have writers in almost all fields including the most technical fields. You don’t have to worry about the complexity of your paper. Simply enter as many details as possible in the place order section.