SOLUTION: ASU World History Discussion

Class 1 (31/8/2021)
Politics and Society in West Africa
Political Organization
• Clan networks
• Regional Kingdoms
• City States
• Imperial States
But with maritime trade came the rise of empires
The Songhai Empire (1461-1591)
• Trans-Saharan
• Mali
• Gao
• Sonni (Sunni) Ali (1464-1493)
• Hierarchy
• Prosperity
• Islam and the Emperors
Fall of Songhai
• Moroccan Army 1591
East Africa
Swahili
• Bantu Language (Group of 500 languages)
Portugal
• Sofla to Mombasa
• Malindi
• Mozambique
Central and Southern Africa
The Kingdom of the Congo
• Centralized
• 1483, Portugal
• Diplomatic relations
• Christianity
• Guns for Lives – Copper, ivory, slaves
• War, 1665
Queen Ana Nzinga 1583-1663
• The Warrior Way
• Dressing the part…
• Playing the Europeans
• The birth of Angola
Europeans in Africa
• Congo Kingdom 1483
• AngolaNdongo (16th – 17th Century)
• Cape town 1652
• Malindi and Mozambique 1505
Islam in Early Modern Africa
• Monotheism and Polytheism
• Where was it popular? – Timbuktu
• Muslim Merchants and shock
• The Fulani
– 1680: Guinea, Senegal, Mali, and Nigeria
– What this meant for sub-Saharan Africa
Class 2 (2/9/2021)
Byzantine Empire … or at least, what was empire or something
The Ottoman Empire 1200 – 1922
• Osman I, Mehmed II, and Suleiman the Magnificent
• Mehmed II 16th century
The Safavid Empire 1508-1534
• Ismail and Ottoman
• Ismail expanded faster than Ottoman
• Northeast: Uzpakistan
• Southeast: Mughal Empire
• West: Ottoman Empire
The Mughal Empire 1526 – 1761
• Zabir Al-din Mohammed (Babur)
• Ghengis Khan and Tamerlane (Timur)
• Portuguese and guns (1526)
• Delhi
• Mughal Empire
Region in the Muslim Empires
Islam:
• Brief intro to the region
• Quran, Hadith, Ulama
• Realm of Islam
– Judaism, Christianity, and tolerance
– Truces
Other religions and Islam
Judaism and Christianity:
• The Ottoman Turks
• Millet system
Hinduism in the Mughal Empire



Why the “Millet System” could never work
Fundamental difference
Conflicting policies toward the Hindus
Decline of the Empire
Economic Decline:
• Expansion
– What does this fuel?
– When expansion failed
– The Europeans
Military Decline:
• (1650s) Keeping up with the Jones
China
Confucianism and Government:
• Bureaucracy
• Scholar-bureaucrats
• Gentry literati
• The Path to power for the scholar-bureaucrat
• The Curriculum
Summary of the Examination System:
• Tangible rewards
• Limited Social mobility
• The annual reaffirmation of Confucianism
Class 3 (7/9/2021)
Christianity in china
Nestorian Christianity
Catholicism heads east:
• Marco polo, the travels of Marco polo (1298-99)
• Sir john Mandeville, the travels of Sir John Mandeville (1356-57)
• Potential allies?
• Reality
The Jesuits:
• Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)
• His journey
• The spiritual Exercises
• The Vanguard
• Protestant faith
Matteo Ricci (1552-1610)
• Macau (1582)
• The Confucian Classics
Chinese conflicts with Christianity:
• Origin
• T.B.C
Overcoming the obstacles:
Chinese
Dressing the beliefs
Intertwining beliefs
Reactions:
• Lower vs. upper
• Tradition vs. New Methods
• 1704, 1715
• Roberto de Nobili and India
Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1867):
12th to 16th century:
• Shogun
• Retainer
Tokugawa Shogunate:
• Bakufu
• Daimyo
• “Alternate attendance”
• Edo
Isolating the people: The Tokugawa Edicts (1630s)
• Contact
• Trade
• Travel
• Expulsion
• Ships
Exceptions
Results of Bakufu rule:
• Population Growth
o Agricultural production
o Checks on population
o market-based economy
Social change (Chinese influence)
• Social hierarchy
• Tokugawa success undermines the system
o the wealthy
o the Merchant
Class 4 (9/9/2021)
The opening of Japan
• Nagasaki
• Hayashi Shihei (1748-1795) and Honda Toshiaki (1744-1821)
• 1720, non-Christian Literature
• 1843, King William II (King of Dutch)
• 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry
The Meiji Restoration:
• Emperor Mutsuhito (Meiji)
The New Government:
• Conservative coalition
• “Rich country, strong army”
Looking to the west
• International students
National unity was the focus
How to reach the goal: Liberalism and Nationalism:
• Liberal reforms
• What they believed
• What happened
The Economic Situation:
• Lingering effects of the past
• Solution?
• Agri Land Tax of 1873
• Pensions
o Satsuma Rebellion (1877)
Industrialization of Japan:
• Transportation, communication, and education networks
• Until the 1880s…
• Zaibatsu
Mori Arinori (Famous thinker in Japan)
With the economic change the culture and social change come
The Imperial March of Japan:
• 1876
• By 1879
• Sino-Japanese War (1894-95):
o Kurile Islands
o Hokkaido
o Okinawa
o Formosa
o Pescadores Islands
Class 5 (14/9/2021)
Class 6 (16/9/2021)
Backdrop to the war:
• The hundred years war (1337-1453)
• The players…
• Theaters of war…
• Is it a world war?
The war kicks off in north America:
• Ohio river valley and west Pennsylvania
• 1754
• Colonel George Washington
• Fort Necessity
General Edward Braddock dispatched to save the day!
on July 9, 1755, Monongahela River…
Washington and…
System of Alliances changes the composition of the war
Formal declarations of war start in Europe:
• (1756) saxony and Prussia go to war
• France, Austria, Russia, and Sweden against the Prussians
• The British…
• Spain and Portugal as well
The fighting in Europe:
• Primary area of fighting (saxony, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, and Austria)
• The French and the Russians
Britain and the Prussians
• Frederick ll
• West to east and back again
• Recruiting
The fighting in north America: two events
• The massacre at fort William Henry (1757)
• Two conflicting ideas
Marquis de Montcalm and the vanquished
• His actions
• The sick and wounded
Battle of Quebec (sept. 13, 1759):
• The problematic French forces:
• Montcalm and marquis de Vaudreuil (12,000)
• Fought differently
British: major gen games Wolfe (4400)
• 60 yards and waiting
• The death of the great Wolf(e)
• Sept 18, 1759
The fighting in India:
• The Mughals and the nawabs
• (nawab) Siraj-ud-Daula
• The black Hole of Calcutta
• The French and…
Battle of Plassey (June 23, 1757):
• Robert Clive
• Mir Jafar
Class 7 (21/9/2021)
THE RESULTS of The Seven Year’s War – the war ended when Russia withdrew from
the conflict, which would have allowed Frederick to turn his full strength against France
and Austria:

rather than risk this, the French sought peace, which was sealed in the Treaty of
Paris of 1763
What was the end results of all this?




Prussia, by alliance with Britain, became one of the great kingdoms of Europe;
more significantly, it became one of the two strongest German-speaking states
(alongside Austria)
France, meanwhile, was left bitter and defeated, but not out of the picture…
Spain was already an imperial power in decline and its loss only reaffirmed
it. Spain would lose most of its empire within the next 60 years
and Britain? The British drove the French from North America: Britain received
Canada and the lands west from the Appalachians to the Mississippi (the French
retained fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland, which they still hold to this
day); Britain received Florida from Spain (then lost it again twenty years later);
and though France held some of its territories in India, Britain became the
paramount European power in the subcontinent; effectively, Britain began its
reign as the world’s greatest imperial power, the height of what has been called
the First British Empire… a phase of British imperial history that would end within
2 decades
POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS IN THE WEST, PART 1: THE U.S. AND FRANCE
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION – in the wake of its victory in the Great War for Empire,
Britain was the single most powerful state in the West (in worldwide terms, the Ottoman,
Safavid, and Chinese states were still as or more powerful); but the war had been
financed in part by letting the national debt get out of hand; now the government would
have to pay; but where to get the revenue? It was obvious to the British government…
the American colonists had benefited most from the war, and now had to be protected
by greater numbers of British troops to protect them from the Native Americans (whose
land had, in part, been taken by those very same American colonists); so the colonies
had cost Britain dearly, were getting more expensive, and, as they had noticed during
the Seven Years War, the colonists had money; therefore, the colonists would have to
pay for their own defense
RESISTANCE TO CHANGE – but this would actually require an immense change in the
handling of the British colonies in North America, and this kind of change the colonists
were very reluctant to allow; for over 100 years the British colonies had been run under
a system referred to as ‘salutary neglect’ – neglect that brings health, literally.
The American colonists were largely allowed to run their own affairs:




they had their own colonial legislatures
they handled their own law enforcement
they sometimes issued their own paper money (often worthless)
there were British officials in the colonies, ostensibly keeping an eye on things;
there were laws that were supposed to force the colonists to trade exclusively
with, or at least through, Britain; and yet, the British officials rarely did anything
about smuggling, and colonial officials did nothing at all about it; so during the
French and Indian War, for example, British officers discovered to their horror
that their American colonists were still trading in molasses with the French in the
Caribbean (molasses that would then not be taxed, because it was smuggled into
the colonies, which meant less money for the British crown, which was paying to
protect the American colonists);
So, after the war, the British began to step up enforcement, and to impose new taxes;
this was intolerable to the colonists; as new duties and taxes were imposed, and new
enforcement measures put in place, the American colonists no longer found themselves
in the same relationship with Britain has they had been

The thing is that the taxes imposed were quite low. But this wasn’t just about the
taxes….
RELUCTANT REVOLUTIONARIES
Were all colonials ready to be done with England? No. Many were reluctant to engage
in full-scale revolution; boycotts on British goods were one thing, but open conflict with
the king’s soldiers was another. The matter becomes complicated by the events
occurring in New England:


For instance, while The Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770, ended with five dead
(Crispus Attucks, an African (American) colonial), six wounded aided in
congealing anti-English sentiment in New England, it did not assure the rest of
the colonies felt the same.
Slowly, over the course of 1774, and into 1775, American colonists went from
blaming the crown officials among them for the issue of taxes and the Boston
Massacre, to blaming the British Parliament, to finally blaming the king himself;
that final mental leap was the key; if the British Parliament couldn’t tax the
colonists, then the king still represented the tie that bound the colonists to Britain;
but if the king himself was the enemy, then the tie that bound them together was
severed; it was a matter of slow, reluctant moves on each side; but when the king
finally declared the colonies to be in open rebellion, and called for troops to
suppress it, the matter came to full revolution
THE FRENCH OPPORTUNITY FOR REVENGE – and the French were waiting; they
had been hoping for revenge for their defeat in 1763; now it looked like a bunch of
ragtag colonists were going to give them their chance; but what if the colonists couldn’t
stand up to the British regulars?

Sure, at Lexington and Concord, American colonials had given the British a good
scare; and at Bunker Hill they stood up courageously right up until their
ammunition gave out, and gave the British a solid beating right up until that point;
but they were still just farmers and artisans; at Saratoga, in 1777, however, the
colonists showed that they had a chance; that was the only signal the French
needed; they leapt into the conflict eagerly (ultimately they were joined by the
Spanish and the Dutch); with such a coalition against them, and without Prussian
help now, the British were ultimately defeated at Yorktown.
(1783) THE PARIS SETTLEMENT – the peace was signed in Paris:



Spain received Florida back from Britain (Only to lose it….in a handful of
decades)
the American colonies were recognized as an independent nation, the United
States of America, whose territory stretched west over the Appalachian
Mountains to the Mississippi, though south of the St. Lawrence River
Britain was humbled, and the First British Empire is understood to have come to
a close; but England was not finished…yet.
HOW REVOLUTIONARY WAS THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AT FIRST? In its
origins, not very; it was started as a rather conservative enterprise; the Americans
initially just wanted to go back to the old imperial arrangement, in which they were
nominally under British control but mostly just allowed to handle their own affairs.

only gradually did they begin to envision a society formed on a different basis
entirely than that of Britain, a society where every free man (Do note this did not
include women, African slaves, and in some cases, poor citizens that did not own
land) could be equal before the law; once cut loose from the moorings of the
British class system, this society would become progressively more and more
free over time; so the American Revolution was revolutionary, but its full promise
took considerable time to reach many parts of its population—this last part is
what makes it revolutionary.
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
FINANCIAL PROBLEMS – the American Revolution had a strong impact on the French
Revolution, though not entirely in an ideological fashion; in fact, France drove its
national debt higher and higher during the American Revolution, giving the colonists
arms at first, then actually sending French troops; the expenses were enormous,
compounded by the fact that, in becoming allies of the colonists, the French actually
had to go to war with Britain, yet again; an inefficient tax system ensured that money
was hard to raise, a situation made worse by the fact that the wealthy were not required
to pay most taxes (the exact opposite of the income tax imposed by the British on their
subjects during the Seven Years’ War, in which the poorest people in society were the
ones who were exempted); efforts to reform the financial system failed because every
reformer made enemies among those who benefited from the old, inefficient system;
private bankers began to refuse to lend the government money; in a desperate fix, Louis
XVI called a meeting of the Estates General, a medieval institution representing the
clergy (the First Estate), nobles (the Second Estate), and everybody else (the Third
Estate)
OTHER FACTORS – there were many factors in the revolutionary explosion that was
about to occur; the financial aspects were just the most visible:


the nobility of France, though weak in some regards, still held onto a few of its
old powers and privileges; they were increasingly willing to use these in order to
undermine royal authority; it was the nobles who forced the king to call a meeting
of the Estates General
the middle class was also problematic; many members of the growing middle
class (9% of France’s population, while the nobles were only 2%) wanted the
government to enact reforms that would benefit them specifically; as these

reforms were denied, they became more and more willing to attack the king and
the nobility for refusing to make changes that the middle class saw as necessary;
as one popular pamphlet put it: “If the privileged order should be abolished, the
nation would be nothing less, but something more.”
And then there was the impact of the Enlightenment (1715-1789), which should
not be ignored, as ideas and new language were threatening the monarchy; new
publications had spread key Enlightenment ideas about reform and rationalizing
government to a large portion of the literate population; long established
institutions were thrown into question, including the role of the king; terms such
as “nation,” “citizen,” and “general will” began to crop up in the political discourse
and suggest that politics should include more than the concerns of the monarch
and a tiny elite
Enlightenment ideas included: reason, individualism, science, skepticism. Some of its
main thinkers were:
1. Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet), Lettres philosophiques (1734)—a series of
fictious letters that described the freedom he witnessed in England, which
became a model of sorts for him for how life should be.
1. Montesquieu (Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brede et de
Montesquieu), The Spirit of Laws (1750), it is a study of political theory and
government (Below are a few, but not all of its tenets).
He divided government along the ideas of the Republic—based on virtue, the
Monarchy—based on honor, and Despotism/Tyranny—based on fear. In essence, each
existed and could be defined on how they applied power
The Separation of Powers, legislative, executive, and judicial must be independent. His
model of the state doing this at the time was England.

The influence of climate on politics: While he met to a certain degree how the
physical climate, weather, etc., affected those carrying out leadership and the
work of gov, he also noted the influence of nonphysical ideas: laws, religion, and
the general conduct of government.
1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau—who famously worked with Denis Dideerot, another
philosophe, is best known for many works:
Discourse on the Origin of Inequality (1755), two types: natural and artificial. Natural
arises from differences in strength and intelligence, the latter, from societies and the
bodies that govern them. In a sense, it came down to basic human nature, jealousy,
envy, ego, status, selfishness, and greed, to name just a few. The introduction of
property—it fuels ego, jealousy, selfishness, and greed—and the status that went with
it, only made matters worse.
Prior to the creation of civilization, Rousseau argued that human beings were not social
beings by nature but entirely solitary. But in contrast to the English pessimist’s view that
human life in such a condition must have been “poor, nasty, brutish, and short,”
Rousseau claims that original humans, although admittedly solitary, were healthy,
happy, good, and free. Human vices, he argued, date from the time when societies
were formed.
Thus, their behaviors are altered by the creation of society. Civil society, as Rousseau
describes it, comes into being to serve two purposes: to provide peace for everyone and
to ensure the right to property for anyone able (lucky?) enough to have possessions. It
is thus of some advantage to everyone, but mostly to the advantage of the wealthy,
since it transforms their de facto ownership into rightful ownership and keeps the poor
dispossessed (Simply, it legitimizes, by way of the law, the land the wealthy claim to
own—remember, the wealthy owned land prior to this moment but there would always
be the question of whether they did so legally or not, by legalizing their holdings as a
society, you are legitimizing their wealth.).
In Rousseau’s view, it is a somewhat fraudulent social contract that introduces
government, since the poor get little out of it as opposed to the rich. Even so, the rich
are no hap…
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