SOLUTION: Health & Medical Implementing the 4Ps in the Program Design Project

Ajani Kerr
Step 1: Project Briefing
Health Disparities amongst African American Adolescent Boys in the U.S
Selected Public Health Issue
Health disparities involve the differences existing among particular population groups in
the achievement of whole health potential. It can be measured by the variations in the following
factors: burden of disease, prevalence, mortality, incidence, and other adverse healthcare
conditions (Xin, 2017). In addition to ethnicity and race, these factors often shape one’s capacity
to attain optimal health. Therefore, with health disparities, there are persistent and stark racial
differences in health coverage, and mental, leading to chronic health conditions and associated
death. These disparities are not erupting from the group or individual behavior; instead, they are
the systematic inequality within the American healthcare, housing, and economic systems (Xin,
2017). Thus, this assignment addresses health disparities amongst African American adolescent
boys in the U.S.
Priority Population: Health Disparities amongst African American adolescent boys in the
U.S
As mentioned above, health disparities occur due to systematic inequality in housing,
healthcare, and economic systems, leading to various chronic health conditions taking a greater
toll in a given population over the other. For example, concerning the 2018 CDC report, around
42% of 37, 968 HIV diagnoses in the U.S were adolescent African Americans with 31%
accounting for African American Adolescent boys (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
2020). In the same year, African American adolescent boys with HIV accounted for 39% of
cases among adolescent men in the U.S. Meaning, African American adolescent boys are less
likely to get diagnosed with HIV compared to their white counterparts.
Furthermore, due to health disparities, African American adolescent boys falling between
15-18 years have the highest risk for sexually transmitted diseases, particularly chlamydia than
their white counterparts. Based on 2018 statistics, this population was 9.1 times higher in
chlamydia than white adolescent boys; that is, 2,668.6 black boys cases to 293.0 white boys
cases per 100,000 people (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020).
References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC. (2020). Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS,
Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB. African Americans/Blacks.
https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/healthdisparities/africanamericans.html
Xin, H. (2017). Health disparities—an important public health policy concern. Frontiers in
public health, 5, 99. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5413494/
1
Choose a Program Planning Model
Program Planning Model for Design Strategy
The preferred model that to be used leveraged to lessen the prevalent healthcare
disparities among the African American adolescent boys in the U.S. is the Evidence-Based
Planning Framework for public health. The rationale for its selection is based on the detailed
sequential framework that it advocates for initiating and facilitating the essential systemic change
appropriate for ensuring health equality in the identified society. The implementation of the
framework also has a high chance of improving the population’s health conditions in the
community mentioned above. Hence, it is vital in transitioning the existing status quo that results
in inequality in access to quality and accessible healthcare services among the affected
population.
The phases in addressing the health problem as outlined by the framework include
undertaking a community assessment, which is integral in enabling planners to understand the
prevalent community context comprehensively. The framework also provides an opportunity to
quantify the issue by the relevant parties, including the U.S. Department of health and associated
stakeholders, through descriptive epidemiology. Notably, descriptive epidemiology allows the
organization and summarization of data, primarily derived from the prevalent surveillance
systems and secondary data sources, such as surveys, governmental publications, and scientific
research journals (Naito, 2014). The third step of the model concerns developing a concise
statement of issue by summarizing the obtained analysis of the root causes of the prevalent
health disparities, which include inequalities in housing, healthcare, and economic systems. The
next step involves determining the known aspects of the prevalent racial health disparity using
scientific literature and helps in the identification of evidence-based solutions that could help
PROGRAM PLANNING MODEL
2
eliminate the problem. Notably, strategies to help eliminate health disparities include raising
awareness of existing disparities in care and involving policy frameworks to expand health
insurance coverage.
The framework also advocates prioritization of the specific interventions determined to
help mitigate against the disparities and the development of action plans that could help
implement the identified interventions. The phase necessitates the development of specific goals
and objectives, and strategies that will facilitate the implementation of the identified
interventions. Importantly, the framework advocates for evaluating the program or policy
following its implementation to confer the opportunity for improving identified loopholes that
could prevent effectiveness. The last step provides policymakers and other stakeholders with the
opportunity to enhance the developed system to ensure comprehensive elimination of the health
problem among African American adolescent boys.
PROGRAM PLANNING MODEL
3
Reference
Naito, M. (2014). Utilization and Application of Public Health Data in Descriptive
Epidemiology. Journal Of Epidemiology, 24(6), 435-436.
https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.je20140182
Ajani Kerr
October 13, 2021
Theoretical Framework
Health Disparities amongst African American Adolescent Boy in the United States
The Health Belief Model (HBM) would be applied as the theoretical framework.
Formulated in the 1950s, the model’s primary objective was to understand the failure of individuals
to follow disease prevention frameworks and screening tests that would allow the early detection
of an ailment. This theory suggests that the belief that a specific condition would threaten a person’s
overall health and their belief of the effectiveness of the health recommendation predicts their
likelihood of adopting the recommended behavior. Therefore, if a person believes that a particular
action would cure or prevent the illness, they are ready to embrace the behavior.
The above theory is aligned with what the program seeks to accomplish. With the overall
mission of reducing the health disparities among African American adolescent boys, the program
would ensure that this population is aware of the various health outcomes brought about by specific
behaviors. Since the goal is to ensure that the group achieves and maintains reproductive health,
the program would be keen to enhance health awareness among the target population. They would
be aware of the dangers of engaging in unsafe sexual activities while highlighting the dangers
associated with the aspect. After the target population opens up concerning their condition, the
program would end up ensuring that these adolescents obtain the proper medication. By agreeing
to enhance behavior change after realizing the dangers that are associated with unsafe sexual
activities, the objective of reducing the number of African American adolescents getting infected
with STIs would be achieved.
Concepts of the Selected Theoretical Framework
Various concepts are related to the Health Belief Model. Understanding them would assist
in getting aligned with the program’s accomplishments. The primary concept of the theoretical
framework applied is perceived susceptibility. This is an individual’s subjective perception about
the risk of acquiring a disease. After understanding the overall perception concerning access to
medical care and engaging in various sexual activities, it becomes easy to address health disparities
(Cunningham & White, 2019).
The perceived severity concept also plays an important role. As the program seeks to
address the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among African American adolescents, the
concept would help highlight their feeling about the dangers they subject themselves to after
engaging in unsafe sexual activities (Luquis & Kensinger, 2019). Many of them are likely to be
influenced by their peers, but it is essential to understand whether they fear the medical
consequences such as STD infection and death.
The theoretical framework also entails the concept of the perceived benefits. This refers to
an individual’s perception of the benefits of various actions to handle the health threat. Generally,
the course of action taken by an individual is related to the perceived susceptibility and perceived
benefits. To ensure that African American adolescents practice safe sexual behavior, the target
population would weigh the benefits that come with the aspect (Jeihooni et al., 2018). Therefore,
the program would ensure that the benefits are well articulated so that these adolescents can
purpose to uphold the program’s recommendation.
Another concept related to the selected theoretical framework is perceived barriers. The
barriers entail the feeling of obstacles hindering the performance of the recommended action.
Therefore, a person ends up encompassing cost and benefit analysis weighing the expense and
effectiveness of the proposed course of action. Since the program also seeks to provide free
medical services to the target population, a majority would be quick to analyze the advantages of
accessing such services. In case they feel an alteration of their privacy, these adolescents would
hesitate to share their health needs. However, if the program upholds privacy and motivates them
to undergo frequent health check-ups, the target population would end up upholding it.
References
Cunningham, M., & White, A. (2019). Young adulthood and health disparities in African
American males. Men’s Health Equity, 57-71.
Jeihooni, A. K., Arameshfard, S., Hatami, M., Mansourian, M., Kashfi, S. H.,
Rastegarimehr, B., … & Amirkhani, M. (2018). The effect of educational program
based on health belief model about HIV/AIDS among high school
students. International Journal of Pediatrics-Mashhad, 6(3), 7285-7296.
Luquis, R. R., & Kensinger, W. S. (2019). Applying the health belief model to assess
prevention services among young adults. International Journal of Health
Promotion and Education, 57(1), 37-47.
Step 1: Project Briefing
Health Disparities amongst African American Adolescent Boys in the U.S
Selected Public Health Issue
Health disparities involve the differences existing among particular population groups in
the achievement of whole health potential. It can be measured by the variations in the following
factors: burden of disease, prevalence, mortality, incidence, and other adverse healthcare
conditions (Xin, 2017). In addition to ethnicity and race, these factors often shape one’s capacity
to attain optimal health. Therefore, with health disparities, there are persistent and stark racial
differences in health coverage, and mental, leading to chronic health conditions and associated
death. These disparities are not erupting from the group or individual behavior; instead, they are
the systematic inequality within the American healthcare, housing, and economic systems (Xin,
2017). Thus, this assignment addresses health disparities amongst African American adolescent
boys in the U.S.
Priority Population: Health Disparities amongst African American adolescent boys in the
U.S
As mentioned above, health disparities occur due to systematic inequality in housing,
healthcare, and economic systems, leading to various chronic health conditions taking a greater
toll in a given population over the other. For example, concerning the 2018 CDC report, around
42% of 37, 968 HIV diagnoses in the U.S were adolescent African Americans with 31%
accounting for African American Adolescent boys (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
2020). In the same year, African American adolescent boys with HIV accounted for 39% of
cases among adolescent men in the U.S. Meaning, African American adolescent boys are less
likely to get diagnosed with HIV compared to their white counterparts.
Furthermore, due to health disparities, African American adolescent boys falling between
15-18 years have the highest risk for sexually transmitted diseases, particularly chlamydia than
their white counterparts. Based on 2018 statistics, this population was 9.1 times higher in
chlamydia than white adolescent boys; that is, 2,668.6 black boys cases to 293.0 white boys
cases per 100,000 people (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020).
References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC. (2020). Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS,
Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB. African Americans/Blacks.
https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/healthdisparities/africanamericans.html
Xin, H. (2017). Health disparities—an important public health policy concern. Frontiers in
public health, 5, 99. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5413494/
1
Choose a Program Planning Model
Program Planning Model for Design Strategy
The preferred model that to be used leveraged to lessen the prevalent healthcare
disparities among the African American adolescent boys in the U.S. is the Evidence-Based
Planning Framework for public health. The rationale for its selection is based on the detailed
sequential framework that it advocates for initiating and facilitating the essential systemic change
appropriate for ensuring health equality in the identified society. The implementation of the
framework also has a high chance of improving the population’s health conditions in the
community mentioned above. Hence, it is vital in transitioning the existing status quo that results
in inequality in access to quality and accessible healthcare services among the affected
population.
The phases in addressing the health problem as outlined by the framework include
undertaking a community assessment, which is integral in enabling planners to understand the
prevalent community context comprehensively. The framework also provides an opportunity to
quantify the issue by the relevant parties, including the U.S. Department of health and associated
stakeholders, through descriptive epidemiology. Notably, descriptive epidemiology allows the
organization and summarization of data, primarily derived from the prevalent surveillance
systems and secondary data sources, such as surveys, governmental publications, and scientific
research journals (Naito, 2014). The third step of the model concerns developing a concise
statement of issue by summarizing the obtained analysis of the root causes of the prevalent
health disparities, which include inequalities in housing, healthcare, and economic systems. The
next step involves determining the known aspects of the prevalent racial health disparity using
scientific literature and helps in the identification of evidence-based solutions that could help
PROGRAM PLANNING MODEL
2
eliminate the problem. Notably, strategies to help eliminate health disparities include raising
awareness of existing disparities in care and involving policy frameworks to expand health
insurance coverage.
The framework also advocates prioritization of the specific interventions determined to
help mitigate against the disparities and the development of action plans that could help
implement the identified interventions. The phase necessitates the development of specific goals
and objectives, and strategies that will facilitate the implementation of the identified
interventions. Importantly, the framework advocates for evaluating the program or policy
following its implementation to confer the opportunity for improving identified loopholes that
could prevent effectiveness. The last step provides policymakers and other stakeholders with the
opportunity to enhance the developed system to ensure comprehensive elimination of the health
problem among African American adolescent boys.
PROGRAM PLANNING MODEL
3
Reference
Naito, M. (2014). Utilization and Application of Public Health Data in Descriptive
Epidemiology. Journal Of Epidemiology, 24(6), 435-436.
https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.je20140182
October 6, 2021
Step 3
Mission

The mission of this program is to reduce health disparities amongst adolescent boys in
the US through access to education and support programs that can equip the community
with knowledge and resources.
Goals

To ensure that adolescents of all races achieve and maintain reproductive health
Through this goal, the number of youths who get infected with HIV each year will reduce.
This will help n through ensuring that adolescent boys get sex education to take care of their
reproductive health.

Increase the number of African American boys in the US have access to suitable
medication.
To reduce the viral load in their bodies, they have to get access to very affordable medication
(Cunningham & White,2019). Some of them fear going to public hospitals, so setting up private
hospitals that deal with only sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents will help them.

Increase access to health consultations for AA boys in the US.
Most of the youth between the age of 15 to 18 do not have stable sources of income.
Providing them with affordable health care or even some free medical services will motivate
them to have frequent checkups for their reproductive health.
SMART Objectives

Increase knowledge of healthcare by hosting educational sessions twice a year for
students and parents.

Assign health checks on students twice a year to keep account of the well being boys in
the US.

To reduce the number of youths who get infected with sexually transmitted infections
each year.
Reference
Cunningham, M., & White, A. (2019). Young adulthood and health disparities in African
American males. Men’s Health Equity, 57-71.
October 13, 2021
Theoretical Framework
Health Disparities amongst African American Adolescent Boy in the United States
The Health Belief Model (HBM) would be applied as the theoretical framework.
Formulated in the 1950s, the model’s primary objective was to understand the failure of individuals
to follow disease prevention frameworks and screening tests that would allow the early detection
of an ailment. This theory suggests that the belief that a specific condition would threaten a person’s
overall health and their belief of the effectiveness of the health recommendation predicts their
likelihood of adopting the recommended behavior. Therefore, if a person believes that a particular
action would cure or prevent the illness, they are ready to embrace the behavior.
The above theory is aligned with what the program seeks to accomplish. With the overall
mission of reducing the health disparities among African American adolescent boys, the program
would ensure that this population is aware of the various health outcomes brought about by specific
behaviors. Since the goal is to ensure that the group achieves and maintains reproductive health,
the program would be keen to enhance health awareness among the target population. They would
be aware of the dangers of engaging in unsafe sexual activities while highlighting the dangers
associated with the aspect. After the target population opens up concerning their condition, the
program would end up ensuring that these adolescents obtain the proper medication. By agreeing
to enhance behavior change after realizing the dangers that are associated with unsafe sexual
activities, the objective of reducing the number of African American adolescents getting infected
with STIs would be achieved.
Concepts of th…
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